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|Metadata for text 30|
|No. words in text||48388|
|Title||Deireadh an Fhoghair|
|Date Of Edition||1979|
|Date Of Language||1950-1999|
|Publisher||W. and R. Chambers|
|Location||National, academic and local libraries|
|Alternative Author Name||N/A|
|Manuscript Or Edition||Ed.|
|Size And Condition||22.2cm x 14.2 cm|
|Short Title||Deireadh an Fhoghair|
|Reference Details||GUL Celtic JPC200.D3 1979|
|Number Of Pages||116|
|Gaelic Text By||N/A|
|Social Context||Tormod Caimbeul (Tormod a’ Bhocsair) was born in 1942, and brought up in the township of Dàil bho Dheas in Ness, in the north of Lewis. His father was the poet, Aonghas Caimbeul, more commonly known as Am Bocsair, whose collected works were published in Bàrdachd a’ Bhocsair in 1978. Tormod’s father died in 1949, when Tormod was a young boy. After finishing his schooling at the Nicolson Institute in Stornoway, Tormod spent time working at Singers in Clydebank and at British Rail in Edinburgh. In 1966, he went to Edinburgh University, where he graduated with an MA. He then went to Jordanhill College in Glasgow to train as a teacher of Gaelic and English. Over the years, he taught in Glasgow, South Uist, and at Sgoil Lionail in Ness, and he also taught at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig in Skye, where he was also writer in residence from 1993 to 1995. He wrote in Gaelic and English, both poetry and prose, and wrote a number of books for children and young adults, such as Uilleam Bàn agus an Iolaire (1977) and Hostail agus sgeulachdan eile (1992). Deireadh an Fhoghair is his best known work. His last novel, An Druim bho Thuath, was published in 2011. He died in 2015. Tormod’s brother, Alasdair (Alasdair a’ Bhocsair), born in 1941, is also an author, both of novels and plays.|
|Contents||This book contains eight untitled chapters and the story is centred around three people who live in a remote area: Coinneach who lives close to the shore, and Ailean (a’ Sgudalair) and his wife Nellie who live two miles away, ‘a-muigh air a’ mhòintich’. All of them are getting on in years and the people they used to know in the area are long gone. It’s the end of autumn and most of the work is done for the year. The story follows Coinneach, Ailean and Nellie over the course of two days, as they reminisce about the past and the people that are now gone, and think about their future.|
|Language||This book is a rich source of mid-to-late-twentieth century Ness Gaelic. The author provides us with a wide range of crofting-related terminology and is written in a very informal, flowing manner. There are also lots of examples of direct speech.
In a number of places the author lists terminology relating to material culture, noting, for example, the things that the main character, Coinneach, finds in his barn, or the contents of a chest. For example, we find ‘Bha a chula seòrsa rud a’s a’ chiste: òrd-chlach agus òrd-ladhrach; croman, corran, ceap-bhròig, agus tairgean lùbach, ruadh leis a’ mheirg; rifeidean is banndaichean is cnagan-doruis; cruidhean na làir bhuidhe, a’ làir mu dheireadh a bh’ aca; càrdan, crois-iarna, dealgan is maide-subhail; bacan airson dàthadh chinn, branndair treun nam bonnach. Bha sìoman-fraoich innte, agus adhairc na bà chiar; fiaclan ràcain; ràsar is deimhis; tacaidean, pinteagan, bioran-fuilt a bha aig Goromal; slacan-pronnaidh a’ bhuntàt agus deagh chlàr-fuine’ (p. 65-66).
The local wildlife is also sometimes described in list-form, e.g. ‘Bha cearcan-fraoich agus smeòraich agus topagan agus feadagan agus druidean-dubha agus faoileagan a’s a’ ghleann; bha cuileagan is meanbh-chuileagan, seilcheagan agus damhain-allaidh agus greumairean agus tarbhain’athrach a’s a’ ghleann’ (p. 4). Other wildlife terminology includes iolair (p. 4), corra-ghritheach (p. 4), clamhan (p. 4), gach steàrnag is leóbag, gach cuileag is crosgag (p. 2), faochagan, feusagain, bàirnich … crùbagan … sìolagan (p. 8), na miallan (p. 58), balgan-buarach (p. 76), feamainn-bhalgain, feamainn-dubh a’ bhuntàta, feamainn-chìrein; mircein, smeartain agus langadair; stamhan is duileasg (p. 85), scrom (feusgan beag dubhghorm) (p. 29), seillean-each and bodach-spàgach (p. 39). Words relating to sheep include mult (p. 5), òisgean (p. 5), rùda (p. 5), and reith (p. 5).
The weather is often mentioned in the text, for example, gaillionn (p. 3), tein-adhair (p. 11), Bha sgòthan trom dubh ’san àird an iar (p. 28), Bha turadh ann (p. 35), ghaoth bho’n Earadheas (p. 56), Bha ’n oidhche socair, carthannach (p. 61), and Càinealachadh a’ latha (p. 92).
Body parts and ailments also appear fairly frequently, for example, greim-mionaich (p. 2), ag cròchail ’s a’ cas’daich ’s a’ sùghadh a shròin (p. 3), thilg e smugaid (p. 3), a sgamhanan ’s a choinnleanan (p. 3), cnàimh-droma (p. 4), com (p. 4), an imleag (p. 1), ’na mhaodal, ’na sgòrnan (p. 1), gòmadaich (p. 8), a’ dìobhart (p. 8), a’ siatuig no losgadh-bràghad no glasadh-uisg (p. 26), ploscairtich a chuirp, rùchdail a mhaodail (p. 32), and chuir mi mach rùchd mo chaolanan (p. 99).
Religion is also mentioned here and there throughout the text, giving us phrases such as ’s beannaichte luchd-gléidhidh na sìth (p. 97), and sgaoil a’ Sgudalair a-mach a ghàirdeanan, chrom e cheann, agus rinn e altachadh: “Dèan tròcair oirnn a tha airidh air ar lòn …” (p. 43).
There is also a lot of terminology used in direct speech including terms of address and expletives, such as Taigh na galla (p. 5), O Dhé ghràsmhor (p. 25), Gu sealladh sealbh ort (p. 27), Bugairean leisg (p. 27), Muirt mhóir (p. 31), Obh obh-obhan (p. 31), Tróidibh a-steach (p. 42), Mo chreach! (p. 48), siuthad thus (p. 51), O Dhé uile-chumhachdaich (p. 51), fuirich a nis ort (p. 60), Tiugainn ma-tha (p. 65), Och isd (p. 76), coma leat-s’ a charaid! (p 82), na truaghain (p. 86), ’Tà (p. 109), a bhròinein (p. 111), and Greas ort a-nis (p. 114).
Other words and phrases of interest include, a’ nochdadh urram dha (p. 2), a charaid ’sa’ chùirt ’s a chùl-taice (p. 3), speuclanan (p. 3), Ge b’ oil le (p. 4), mar an ceudna (p. 4), gu suthain sìorruidh (p. 4), a’s a’ chruinne-cé (p. 4), tocasaid (p. 1), uair dha robh i (p. 1), gu dearbha (p. 1), Sin uireas (p. 1), cha do leig iad càil orra (p. 1), gun smid (p. 2), loma-làn (p. 5), bhrògan tacaideach (p. 5), Dà ghlamaiseire (p. 7), buidheagan (p. 8), a’ dèanamh fanaid air (p. 8-9), gun stiall aodaich (p, 8), gun fhiosd dha (p. 9), reubt (p. 9), gròileagan de dhaoine (p. 17), a’ cuir seachad nan ionnairidhean (p. 28), Cuir umad do chòta ’s do chlogaid (p. 29), ceann a lò (p. 31), crath dhìot an cadal (p. 51), dóruinneach (p. 58), mar bu mhinig a bha (p. 58), clann an diabhuil sin (p. 58), car-a-mhuiltein (p. 82), cha robh deifir (p. 89), Latha gu cur agus latha gu buain (p. 89), mo cheann ’na luairean (p. 101), and mas breug thugam i, is breug bhuam i (p. 108).
|Orthography||The direct speech and the informal writing style allow the author to write words and phrases the way they are pronounced, rather than as you would find them in a dictionary. The author’s Lewis dialect may be reflected in the use of the following forms man dà bhànrigh’nn (p. 2), cas’daich (p. 3), ’s a b’ àbhais (p. 4), rise-san (p. 4), ’ad (e.g. p. 1) rather than iad, a chula latha (e.g. p. 2), copan (p. 5), Rinn e miaran, ’s leig e brùc (p. 6), col’ach (p. 6), bracoist (p. 7), far na stad (p. 8), h-abair thusa (p. 8), cha robh e ’g radh dùrd (p. 8), cha robh sgot aig na focail (p. 9), a’ lubht (p. 11), thigh’n (p. 22), abhran (p. 24), a’ creic (p. 26), Tha sin diabhult (p. 27), a’ cuir (p. 28), air folach (p. 30), gum fac e càil, gun cual e dùrd (p. 42), Robh agad-s’? (p. 46), Woill (p. 47), ioma maduinn (p. 51), ciod mu’n oidhche (p. 56), Bhos cionn (p. 77), gos a ruig sinn na truisg (p. 81), a-reimhe (p. 90), a réisd (p. 93), comh’ ri càch (p. 97), Carson nach deacha-tu (p. 97), eagallach gort (p. 98), fios deamhnaidh math agam (p. 98), cana’ tusa (p. 98), bho thàna’ mi (p. 99), an uair a ràna sinn (p. 100), ’cuimhn am (p. 100), Cionnus (p. 112), and fuam (p. 115). Also of note is the author’s use of gos rather than gus, man rather than mun, mas rather than mus, the metathesis mr > rm in words like iormadh (p. 2), iormaidh (p. 97) and iormall (p. 111), his use of feagal rather than eagal, sud rather than siud, his lack of lenition after aon (e.g. aon mult, p. 4), and his use of duirt and dainig.
The orthography is generally that of the late twentieth century (pre-GOC). Both acute and grave accents are used throughout the text and the orthography uses the final vowel u rather than a (e.g. dorus, maduinn, foghlumuichte), and a final d rather than a final t (e.g. an dràsd, e.g. p. 5).
|Further Reading||Caimbeul, Tormod, Uilleam Bàn agus an Iolaire ([Glasgow], 1977: Cliath).
Caimbeul, Tormod, Hostail agus sgeulachdan eile (Stornoway, 1992: Comhairle nan Eilean).