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Metadata for text 35
No. words in text126984
Title Suathadh Ri Iomadh Rubha
Author Caimbeul, Aonghas
Editor N/A
Date Of Edition 1973
Date Of Language 1950-1999
Publisher Gairm
Place Published Glasgow
Volume N/A
Location National, academic and local libraries
Geographical Origins Lewis
Register Literature, Prose
Alternative Author Name Am Puilean
Manuscript Or Edition Ed.
Size And Condition 18.1 cm x 13cm
Short Title Suathadh Ri Iomadh Rubha
Reference Details EUL, Celtic Library: LI G CAI
Number Of Pages [12], 370
Gaelic Text By N/A
Illustrator N/A
Social Context Aonghas Caimbeul was born in 1903 in Suaineabost, Ness, Lewis. Although brought up in Suaineabost, Caimbeul’s father was from Tàbost and his father’s mother was from Siadar. Both of his mother’s parents were from Uig. Caimbeul’s father was a lay preacher and the family moved from Ness to Berneray, Harris in 1918, when Caimbeul was fourteen, after his father obtained a post in the Free Church there ’na mhisionaraidh (p. 111). Caimbeul worked at various jobs in the area, as a cowherd, a handyman, and a boatman. In 1924 he took a job serving on luxury yachts, and then spent seven years in the Seaforth Highlanders. Caimbeul spent much of these seven years in India. While he was there he saw Gandhi speak and spoke with Amy Johnson, the aviator. He returned to Suaineabost in 1932 and put money into a shop. In 1933 he married Mary Mackay from Eoropie and they had seven children.

Caimbeul played no small part in the establishment of the Ness bothain, one of a number which began to appear around this time, and which eventually developed a bad reputation as ‘drinking bothies’. He also had a spell working at a shipyard in Glasgow during the thirties as it was hard to make ends meet at the shop after the arrival of local mobile shops. In 1939 he went to war and was captured at St. Valery in France in 1940. He spent the rest of the war years as a prisoner in Poland. After the war he returned to the shop at Suaineabost. Caimbeul began writing poetry on the journey out to India and a collection of his poems, Moll is Cruithneachd, was published in 1972. Caimbeul wrote Suathadh ri Iomadh Rubha, his autobiography, in 1971, and it was published in 1973.
Contents This text begins with a Clar Innsidh and a Roimh-radh by the author, dated 1971. The main body of the text comprises eight chapters as follows:

Oige ann an Suaineabost (pp. 1-68): This chapter describes the author’s upbringing in Swainbost from 1903 to 1918, and touches on the following subjects: An Teaghlach agus an Dachaidh, Na Seann-daoine, Baile Shuaineabost, An t-Aonadh — Mailisi — Clann-nighean an Sgadain, An Sgoil, Pàdruig Shuaineaboist, An Càr — Iasgach — Gàbhaidhean Cuain, An Ionnairidh, Fealla-dhà agus Cùisean-eagail, Ughdarras na h-Eaglais — Ministearan Ainmeil, Obair na Bliadhna — An Airigh — Bainnsean, An Cogadh Mór 1914, An Sgoil Supplementary.

Daoine Eibhinn san Sgire (pp. 69-107): This chapter looks at some of the characters in the neighbourhood while Caimbeul was growing up.

Bearnaraidh agus Easaidh (pp. 109-69): This chapter looks at the family’s move to Berneray and at the years Caimbeul spent in that area from 1918 to 1924. It includes the following sections: Imrich á Suaineabost — Eilean Bheàrnaraidh, Buachailleachd — Cairtearachd — Iasgach, Ag Obair aig Stiùbhartaich Easaidh, Seòladh Caolas na Hearadh, A’ Bhliadhna mu Dheireadh am Beàrnaraidh.

“Cuckoo Sailor” (pp. 171-82): This chapter looks at Caimbeul’s short time serving on board luxury yachts.

Anns an Arm Cheangailt (pp. 183-223): This chapter discusses Caimbeul’s seven years in the Seaforth Highlanders and covers the following topics: Fort George — Eireann, Nowshera — Cor an t-Saighdeir — An Sluagh Ionadail, Lahore — Obair san O’Dwyer Institute — Co-fharpuisean, Jhansi — Oifigich — Cogadh ris na Pathans, Ag Eisdeachd Gandhi — A’ Bruidhinn ri Amy Johnson, Naidheachd Bròin, Dol Dhachaidh.

Nis agus Glaschu (pp. 225-63): This chapter looks at Caimbeul’s return home from India, and at the years he spent in Ness and in Glasgow before the outbreak of the Second World War. It contains the following sections: Cor an t-Sluaigh — Am “Bothan” — Pòsadh, Daoine a Thriall — Nithean a Bha agus Nach Eil, Obair an Glaschu — Tilleadh — Bagraidhean Cogaidh.

Braighdeanas (pp. 265-329): This chapter details Caimbeul’s time in the army during the Second World War, most of which he spent in prison camps in Poland. It contains the following sections: “An Cogadh Faoin” — Blitzkreig — St. Valery, An Turus go Thorn — Stalag XXA — Bromberg, Droch Mhaighstir — gu Groudenz — Beatha nas Fheàrr, A’ Choiseachd Fhada, Saorsa.

Suil Air Ais ’s Air Adhart (pp. 331-59): This chapter looks back at the changes that have occurred during the author’s lifetime.

This volume ends with a section of Notaichean (pp. 361-70), in Gaelic, on some of the terminology used in the text and on some of the people mentioned. Terms are arranged by page number. There are a few short verses throughout the text, including verses of the author’s own poetry at the beginning of each chapter.
Sources
Language This text is a good source of Lewis Gaelic from the early-to-mid-twentieth century, and contains terminology on a wide range of subjects including material culture, the changing way of life in Ness, the army, and the Second World War.

In Oige ann an Suaineabost, the author talks about his upbringing on the island. He describes his grandfather’s house, using vocabulary such as a’ chùlaisd (p. 3), séise (p. 4), and stall (p. 4). Clothing is also covered, e.g. briogais mhóilisgin (p. 20), geansaidh snàth (p. 20), and bròg geamhraidh with seachd sreathan thacaidean innte, agus cnùidh iarainn air sàil is gob (p. 21), as is women’s work, e.g. crois-iarna (p. 35), cnocain (p. 35), and toinneamh dealgain (p. 35), and men’s work, e.g. snìomh sìoman fraoich (p. 35), a’ càradh bhròg (p. 35), and biathadh lìon-iasgaich (p. 35). The author also talks about agriculture, e.g. Cha robh mìr de thalamh-àitich na croit nach robh air a shìol-chur gu cùramach (p. 47), and Bhiodh inneir nam brùidean agus feamain cladaich ’na mhathachadh air an talamh (p. 47). Food is mentioned, e.g. ‘An teaghlach aig am biodh buntàta gu leòr, sgadain, rionnaich agus iasg air a shailleadh, feòil mult no dhà sa’ bharaille agus dùil ri dhà no trì de bhollaichean min-eòrna thoirt á gràn na bliadhna, bhiodh an suidheachadh seo, le leasachadh beagan bainne agus am beagan biadh bùtha air an ruigeadh sporan gann, air a mheas ’na fhóghnadh air son lòn is annlan toiseach geamhraidh eile’ (p. 49-50). The author also talks about the First World War and the men coming home on leave, using vocabulary such as: àm na creich ’s na tuasaid an 1914 (p. 18), Impireachd Bhreatainn (p. 18), leis an arm agus leis a’ chabhlaich-mhara (p. 56), còrsair (p. 56), ann an truis an fhéilidh agus ri giùlain an gunna ’s an acfhuinn-chogaidh ’nan cois (p. 57), ‘nuair thigeadh na fir-chòmhraig cuairt dhachaidh air fòrladh, cha robh sinn idir ’gan co-choimeas ri cunnart-bàis, leònadh, léireadh ana-cothrom, salachair is blàbar-poill an t-saighdeir-cath, no ri gàbhadh luaisgeanach agus bagraidhean bàthaidh an t-seòldair’ (p. 59), and cor an t-saighdeir-cath (p. 59). Caimbeul also discusses fishing and the dangers associated with it, e.g. Bha iasgach lìon mór agus lìon beag agus iasgach sgadan ’ga chur air adhart (p. 31), ’Se cuan oglaidh, borb, a tha ag iadhadh cladaichean Nis agus b’iomadh gàbhadh agus cruadal a bha co-cheangailte ris an obair (p. 31), Chaidh aon duine lathadh gu bàs (p. 31), Latha nan seachd sian eile, is an fhairge ri bristeadh ’na chìreanaich gheal ri beul na h-acarsaid (p. 32), A, dhuine dhuine! A shìorruidh an t-sòlais! A chàirdean mo ghaoil! Gu sealladh sealbh a’ fhreasdail oirnn! (p. 58), and crois-rathaidean (p. 67).

Other terminology of interest in this chapter includes, ann a’ Bhancùbhar (p. 5), bha droch dhìol is fòirneart de gach seòrsa air an cleachdadh le luchd-inbhe gus an sluagh bochd a chreachadh, a spùinneadh agus an cumail ann an staid tràillealachd (p. 13), Theagamh gun tig thu gu co-dhùin nach eil daoine an diugh cho cumhang ’nam beachdan, no cho ealamh gu ainreit a dhèanamh air son aobhair cho caoin-shuarach (p. 17), bu mhór an dibhearsain ’s am fearas-chuideachd (p. 19), pension na h-aois (p. 24), taigh-faire (p. 30), cur-seachad na h-ionnairidh (p. 34), foirbhich (p. 35), and Bha inneal againn sna làithean ud gu tilgeadh clach air an robh glongag (p. 66).

In Daoine Eibhinn san Sgire, he discusses some of the characters in the neighbourhood and describes some of the local stories and happenings that followed them, e.g. ‘Tha facal tha ag radh “cluinnear thusa far nach fhaicear thu,” agus ma bha e fìor mu aon duine eile, bha mu Aonghas MacFhearghais á Eòropaidh. Bha chòmhradh cho garbh, àrd-labhrach, agus gur e thubhairt am bàrd uime, “Nuair a chual iad Aonghas Fhearghais, shaoil leotha gur e ’n fhairge bh’ann.” ’Se sanais Aonghais Fhearghais, nuair a bhiodh e ag ìnnse rud dìomhair, falachaidh, “ri radh, ghràidh, ris an talamh,” agus sin a’ ruighinn claisneachd na bhiodh thall ’s a-bhos’ (p. 99). Also of interest is the use of Tud (p. 73) and Tiud (p. 85) in direct speech.

In Bearnaraidh agus Easaidh, the author describes Berneray and the surrounding area: ‘Bha an talamh torach gun fraoch, gun mòinteach, ach glas-fheur cinneasach a chuireadh sgéimh air spréidh is buar, agus talamh-àitich torach, de dhà sheòrsa — dubh-thalamh agus machair’ (p. 114) and ‘Thall faisg air Gob an Tobha na Hearadh, tha Seilaidh, aon de na h-àitean sìolachaidh aig ròin ghlas a’ Chuain Siar. Mu thuath, tha fearann beanntach mórthir na Hearadh, leis na h-Eileanan Easaidh agus Ceileagraidh mu leth na slighe null air Caol na Hearadh’ (p. 116). Describing his job on the boat which ran between the islands of Easaidh, Ceileagraidh, and Pabaidh, Caimbeul writes: ‘Bha mise a’ fuasgladh a’ bhall-ruith, ri dol roimh’n t-seòl, ’ga thoirt a-nuas làmh air làimh. Aig àird na gualainn bha ceann na slait ri thoirt timchioll a’ chrainn, a thoirt de’n dubhan, an dubhan a chur ann an dul ma ruitheadh e suas air ais, toiseach an t-siùil a thoirt timchioll bun a’ chrainn agus a chur air ais a’ chromag-thoisich. Bha an uairsin an ealag leis an uidheam bhall ri thoirt gu taobh eile an eathair, a cur san dul iarainn, an seòl a chur rithe rithist, làmh thar làimh a’ tarraing air a’ bhall-ruith, an sgiobair ri cuideachadh leis an teannachadh deireach, agus an uairsin ri gabhail aige’ (p. 139).

In “Cuckoo Sailor”, the author describes his first taste of Glasgow: ‘Bha gleadhraich, collaid agus ùpraid Ghlaschu gu h-àraidh ’na chùis-neònachais, agus dol-a-mach dhaoine agus innealan-siubhail a’ bhaile cho tur eadar-dhealaichte ris mar a tha iad an diugh. Bha trams dhà-steòr a’ ruith air réilichean, bathair air an giùlain le eich, uaislean a’ bhaile mar bu tric a’ gabhail an turuis ann an carbad dhà each ruith, agus seo air mheasgachadh le beagan chàraichean gliogach de’n t-seòrsa ris an abair iad an diugh seann chrogaisean’ (p. 173).

In Anns an Arm Cheangailt, the author describes his experiences during his seven years in the Seaforth Highlanders, most of which he spent in India: ‘Bho bhaile Peshawer [sic] thug sinn làithean a’ coiseachd a dh’ionnsaidh dùthaich an nàmhaid air iùil tuath ’s an ear-thuath, dùthaich lom chiar-ghlas a bha fàs ann am mì-ghean, agus a’ meudachadh a gruaim mar a b’ fhaide bha sin a dol a-steach innte.’ (p. 210), ‘Cha bu luaithe bha an tarraing-air-ais air gluasad na bhiodh fras pheilearan mu ar cluasan. Bha bataraidh de ghunnaichean aotrom againn a bheireadh mùileidean leotha ’na mhìrean feadh nam beann, agus nuair a thòiseachadh iad a’ losgadh an co-chomunn ri gach seòrsa aramachd a bha againn fhéin, bha ball-amhairt is gleadhraich fo do chomhair car tamull a bha cur smuais is colg ’na do churaichean.’ (p. 213). Other vocabulary of interest in this chapter includes batàlion (p. 186), sapairean (p. 210), àite-campachaidh (p. 210), fo bhonn nam pàilliun chanabhas (p. 211), a’ dol suas a’ chlais-bhlàir (p. 213), de fhear-faire (p. 214), sàirdseant (p. 215), cuin a bha an t-sàmhchair a’ dol a sprèadhadh ann an tuasaid aimhreiteach (p. 215), làmhachas-làidir (p. 216), bonn-còmhraig (p. 216), gun dh’fhairich e idir fàileadh an fhùdair (p. 216). Also of interest in this chapter are the following, ’Se gliogan-glagan beag, aotrom, an-earbsach a bh’anns an t-soitheach-adhair aice (p. 219), bhiodh sinne air ghod a’ feitheamh gu dé chuilbheart ùr a bha seo an dràsda (p. 220), an seanfhocal (p. 221), and ann an làn feirg (p. 221).

In Nis agus Glaschu the author describes his years at home and in Glasgow before the outbreak of World War Two. Vocabulary of interest in this chapter includes, ris a’ mharsantachd (p. 227), farainm (p. 227), araon (p. 228), an-dligheach (p. 229), an dorradas (p. 229), ‘Bha e mar fhiachan air an luchd-céilidh frithealadh air uireasbhaidhean a’ bhodaich, agus cha robh bleigeardachd no mì-stiùrrachd ceadaichte’ (p. 230), ‘Cha robh oidhche nach robh sgeileid le feòil phrann a’ caoin-ghoil an grìosach an teine, agus a ceann air liagh fiodha’ (p. 231), buideal chóig ghalain leann (p. 232), ‘Bha an t-Ollamh MacIain ag radh gun robh an t-slighe gu Iutharn stéidhichte le rùintean math agus tha sin air fhìreanachadh leis an ana-caitheamh ’s an struidhealachd mhì-chiatach a thàrmaich á àbhachd gun bheud a bha dì-bheathte le sean is òg gus na rinn na mic stròdhail gràinealachd dheth’ (p. 232), horo-gheallaidh (p. 233), caithris na h-oidhche (p. 233), àireamh nan teachdan-gèarr (p. 233), an t-seana-bhean (p. 244), ‘Bha an saoghal dorch seo le spioradan uaigneach, cumhachdan uilc, seallaidhean is rabhaidhean roimh-làimh, agus feachd dólasach a dh'iomadh seòrsa eile, air an grad-mhùchadh air chùl sgàil-bhrat an eòlais’ (p. 247), an uair a dhubh-dh’fhailich an gnothaich air (p. 249), bara-cuibhle (p. 252), am maor-eaglais (p. 252), déacoin (p. 253), gidheadh (p. 256), ban-eiridnidh (p. 257), and fearas-chuideachd (p. 260). This chapter also includes a short section with beagan de ghnàth-chainnt na suiridhe, including tha e leam mar sùgh na circe, chan iarrainn am bainne leis, and oich is éileadh cha b’e ghràidh a thigeadh orm (p. 234).

In Braighdeanas the author describes his experiences of the Second World War. Terminology of interest includes, bha an obair againne gun tairbhe (p. 269), cuid ri feall-fholach is cuid eile dèanamh grad-ionnsaidh (p. 270), balla-dìdein (p. 271), ’na ghurraban san t-seileir (p. 275), an robh dòigh air cobhair a dhèanamh air (p. 279), nuair nach robh rian dol-ás againn (p. 280), a’ stobadh a-mach ás an abharsac aige (p. 282), bucaid bainne air crann-guaille (p. 285), Thug mi sùil ceithir-thimchioll (p. 285), còmhla-làir (p. 285), Cha b’fheumaich an gadaich air a’ chroich (p. 286), bho fhear de dheisciobuil sodalach Goebbels (p. 287), Bha slaic is breab is buille thall ’s a-bhos air na cùis-bhròin, agus sin an co-chuideachd ri glaodhaich bhorb is achmhasan (p. 292), Comunn na Crois Deirg (p. 292), brògan-spéilidh (p. 293), bha na comharraidhean luchdaichte an aghaidh iochdmhorachd (p. 293), mhì-stà (p. 294), leasan eile do dhaoine tha cur muinighin ann an ana-ceartas, gus an toir latha an dearbhaidh solus dhaibh air a neo-sheasmhachd (p. 298), chaith sinn an ionnairidh oidhche ’nar gròileagain a’ beachd-smuaineachadh air suidheachadh a chogaidh agus faisgead ar saorsa (p. 307), garbh-ghuthach, àrd-labhrach (p. 307), bladh na mì-riaghailt ’s na h-eas-òrdugh (p. 308), robhainn garg don chuid a bha dealbh a leithid cheudna (p. 315), criothnachadh-losgaidh (p. 319), turad tanca (p. 321), and drabhasach (p. 324).

The last chapter, Suil Air Ais ’s Air Adhart contains reflections on the War, such as ‘Tha an Cùirtear Iarainn ri dèanamh crìoch an iomsgaraidh eadar dà leth shaoghal nach ruig air sìth no réite a ghléidheadh ach tre uamhann is eagal roimh ghràinealachd sgrios càch-a-chéile’ (p. 334), and the author’s reflections on the changes that have occurred in Lewis during his lifetime, such as in the Gaelic language: ‘Aig luchd-aidich, ann an ceann dleasnas na h-ùrnaigh fhollaisich, éisdidh tu gu tric ri cainnt ion-mhiannaichte, cunbhal, ach ’se chùis bhochdainn nuair thig iad gu bruidhinn air ceann-còmhraidh eile, gu bheil iad air ais sa’ bhutarrais, agus nach fheàrr an ealantachd innte na chuid eile’ (p. 343-44).

The following sayings are also mentioned in the text: no mar a theireadh an seann duine, cur mo chinn am boglach troimh nach coisich mo chasan (Roimh-Radh), ’Se bhlas fheuchainn a thogas fianais air sgil a’ chòcaire (Roimh-Radh), Cnàmhan de chogadh fad ás, a chuireas prìs air caora ’s air mart (p. 56).
Orthography The author’s dialect may be reflected in the use of the following: An Dùdlachd (Roimh-Radh), na h-ìnnleachdan a tha tùirlinn oirnn bliadhna bho bhliadhna (p. 4), aig uairibh (p. 6), iorball (p. 6), mo laochaig (p. 7), Cha tubhairt esan smid (p. 7), rathadan (p. 11), gun bheud gun ghaiseadh (p. 12), bha e ri radh (p. 13), Siorramachd Rois (p. 16), matà (p. 18), ’Sann oirnn fhéin a bhiodh an spliùch leotha (p. 19), abair spraighlich (p. 28), garg-eagal am beatha (p. 28), stiùradair (p. 29), bha clann na sgìre gu léir air an sàil (p. 30), adhlaiceadh (p. 73), Siarach (p. 87), cha b’ann am dheòin a dh’fhalbh mi (p. 111), Cha robh uair a bha mi feuchainn ri rud a radh nach robh luchd ag éirigh ’na mo shlugan a bha tachdadh mo chòmhraidh tu tur (p. 111), gàrlach balaich (p. 112), da-rìreadh (p. 112), Faodar a thuigse gun robh imlich na spòig aige fhéin sa’ chùis (p. 112), bàta-smùid beag biogarra (p. 113), glagraich nan cairtean (p. 114), dhiùlt mi a muigh ’s a-mach dol air ais do’n sgoil (p. 118), chaidh mi fo cheanglaichean muinntireis (p. 118), rapais obair coma co-dhiù (p. 119), is iomadh sian bàsmhor a chaidh orm bho’n latha ud bho na thàr mi ás air fìor éiginn (p. 121), chan eil teagamh air bith (p. 185), aig amaibh (p. 186), cha chòir dhuinn (p. 187), dhiu’ for ’dhiubh (e.g. p. 219), ciod e a thachair (p. 261), and air thuaiream (p. 326).

The ten pages of notes at the back of the book provide meanings and explanations of some of the terms used in the text. For example, we find ‘26 air shiulam Air chall, air faondradh. Facal á Uig Leódhais, tha an t-ùghdar ag radh, a’ ciallachadh an aona rud ri “air shiulaid”, a gheibhear anns an dàn “Oran Gaoil, le Nighean Fhir na Reilig”, ann an Sar-Obair nam Bàrd Gaelach’ (p. 361). Other examples of vocabulary explained in the Notaichean includes spuirt (p. 143), a word from Harris, meaning ‘cleasan’; air mo bhuille-trot (p. 149), meaning ‘Gun roghainn eile ach falbh’; and turraisg (p. 347) meaning ‘Boireannach faoin, gorach’.

The orthography is generally that of the mid-to-late twentieth century. Both grave and acute accents are used throughout the text.
Edition First edition.
Other Sources
Further Reading Black, Ronald (ed.), An Tuil, 2002, p. 757.
Caimbeul, Aonghas, Moll is Cruithneachd, 1972.
MacKenzie, John, Sar-Obair nam Bàrd Gaelach, 1841.
 
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