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|Metadata for text 31|
|No. words in text||59014|
|Title||Ugam agus Bhuam|
|Editor||Domhnallach, Domhnall Eairdsidh|
|Date Of Edition||1977|
|Date Of Language||1950-1999|
|Location||National, academic and local libraries|
|Alternative Author Name|
|Manuscript Or Edition||Ed.|
|Size And Condition||21.2cm x 13.8cm|
|Short Title||Ugam agus Bhuam|
|Reference Details||EUL, Celtic Library: LI G Mor|
|Number Of Pages||xxii, 113|
|Gaelic Text By||N/A|
|Social Context||Pàdruig Moireasdan was born in 1889, in Rubha Bhuidhe, in south west Grimsay, a small island between North Uist and Benbecula. He had two brothers and two sisters. When Pàdruig was growing up, the céilidh was still popular and he heard many stories told and songs sung in the taigh-céilidh, particularly in taigh Clann Chaluim Big ’ic Mhathain, a thatched house with the fire in the middle of the floor. Pàdruig left school at fourteen and when he was seventeen he went to the mainland for the first time, to train with the Militia in Inverness. After three such trips, Pàdruig went to Gourock where he worked on the railway, alongside his father’s brother, Niall. He then went to Glasgow and spent four years as a sailor, travelling many times to Canada and the United States. He returned to Grimsay in 1914 and bought a new fishing boat.
When war broke out, Pàdruig joined the Lovat Scouts and spent time in Gallipoli, Egypt, Salonica and in France. By the end of the war he had become a corporal (làn chorpaileir, p. 10). In 1919, he returned to Grimsay to fish and to work the croft. In 1923, Pàdruig married a local girl, Flòraidh nic Thòrcadail, with whom he had two sons and two daughters. They moved to Glasgow shortly afterwards and Pàdruig spent a few years doing building work. He took on various jobs after that, such as working in a rubber mill, and eventually became an Engineer’s Rigger at Stephens’ ship-yard on the Clyde. In 1932 they returned to Grimsay, and to fishing and croftwork. During the Second World War, Pàdruig spent much of his time working in Glasgow, but returning to Grimsay in the spring and autumn to work on the croft. After the war, he and his family spent four years on the island of Heisker. The island was deserted but the land was fertile and Pàdruig and his family were very happy there. They had hoped that other families from Grimsay might come and join them on Heisker but this did not happen and after four years they returned to Grimsay.
In his spare time, Pàdruig enjoyed telling stories and writing. Some of his work was published in An Gàidheal and in Gairm and he was frequently heard on the radio. Some of the stories from this collection were broadcast in the program Naidheachdan agus Sgeulachdan. Three of the stories from this volume, along with two of the songs, were published in Tocher 16, with English translations and an account of Pàdruig’s life in English. Pàdruig was also very interested in music and song which he taught, for a while, to children in Grimsay. He was recorded many times by the School of Scottish Studies in Edinburgh and he himself became interested in having some of his stories and songs published. Comunn nan Leabhraichean at Glasgow University offered to help with the publishing costs and the editor, Dòmhnall Eairdsidh Dòmhnallach, made a selection of stories and songs from the material that had been recorded by the School. It was then the job of Iain Peatarson to transcribe the songs and stories which were then edited by Dòmhnall Eairdsidh. Pàdruig’s only request was that the final song, Oran mu Chogadh Aifriga (p. 113), which his mother wrote, should be included in the book.
|Contents||This volume contains stories, history, and poems, collected from Pàdruig Moireasdan of Grimsay, North Uist. These were taken from recordings made of Padrùig by the School of Scottish Studies in the 1960s and 1970s. Pàdruig himself heard most of the stories in the taigh-céilidh in Grimsay, although some of them relate his own experiences.
This volume begins with a Map of Grimsay (p. vi), An Clar (p. vii), and Facal on Fhear Dheasachaidh (pp. ix-xxi), which contains information about Pàdruig Moireasdan, about the material included in the book, and about the orthography employed by the editor. There follows a short statement by the author in the Roimh-Radh (p. xxii). The main body of the text contains 25 stories told by Pàdruig (pp. 1-90), 13 songs written by him (pp. 91-112), and Oran mu Chogadh Aifriga, which was written by his mother. A few words by way of introduction are given at the end of each of the songs. Pàdruig’s songs are presented chronologically, beginning with the earliest.
|Sources||At the end of each story and song is a note of the sound recording, housed at the School of Scottish Studies, from which it was taken. At the end of some of the stories there is a reference to the relevant section in Aarne and Thompson’s The Types of the Folktale. Some of the stories presented in this volume, for example Na Trì Leintean Canaich were constructed from more than one recording of the story. In such cases, the material which has been added from a second version of the tale has been incorporated within square brackets. Where the odd word has been added by the editor for the purposes of clarification, these have been incorporated within round brackets. Three dots represent a pause in the telling of the tale, whereas more than three dots represent something that the editor has left out for the sake of clarity.
Some of Pàdruig’s work was published in An Gàidheal and in Gairm, and some of the stories from this collection were broadcast in the program Naidheachdan agus Sgeulachdan. Three of the stories from this volume, along with two of the songs, were published in Tocher 16, with English translations and an account of Pàdruig’s life in English. These are Oran a’ Chogaidh, Oran Bliadhn’ Uire, An Crodh-Mara, An Tàilleir agus na Mnathan Iasgaich, and Guth té a Chaidh a Bhàthadh.
|Language||Terminology from Facal on fhear Dheasachaidh and from the Roimh-Radh covers a wide range of terminology relating particularly to Pàdruig’s life and to the preparation of this volume, for example tarsuinn na fadhlaichean, aig muir-tràigh (p. x), sluagh lìonmhor, cosanta (p. x), iad uileag air tighinn gu deagh aois (p. x), làn chéilichean (p. x), as a’ mhailisi (p. x), Hailifags ann an Alba Nuadh (p. xi), air a’ bhòidse bha sin (p. xi), ghabh Pàdruig air ball as an arm (p. xi), réisimeid Mhic Shimidh (p. xi), beàrseachan (p. xi), greiseagan (p. xi), Bha mi anabarrach measail orra (p. xii), Bha toil aige (p. xii), mòran bhràintean (p. xiii), on a thòisich mi air recòrdadh aige an toiseach (p. xiv), ruith éisdeachd agus taghaidh a dheanamh (p. xiv), Oil-thaigh (p. xiv), Ghabh sinn as laimh seo a dhèanamh (p. xiv), chaidh e ris an obair (p. xiv), air a’ bheairt-sgrìobhaidh (p. xiv), cuid seach cuid (p. xiv), mo chomh-chosnaichean (p. xiv), rangachadh (p. xv), colmadh (p. xvi), eadar dà innse (p. xvi), crìochan cearnach ‘square brackets’ (p. xvi), crìochan cruinne ‘round brackets’ (p. xvii), ’Se mi fhéin a recòrd a chuid is motha (p. xvii), an comh-cheanghal ris (p. xvii), recòrdaidhean (p. xvii), a’ bleith leis a’ bhrathainn (p. xviii), deifireachadh (p. xviii), chan fhaicear a leithidean tuilleadh (p. xx), turas dhe na tursan (p. xxi), ’Sè bha ag éisdeachd (p. xxi), and ’S miann leam innse don dream (p. xxii).
The stories cover fiction, history, and news. The first six are stories which can be found throughout the world. The next story is a novella (as are two of the first six stories). The rest of the stories cover a variety of topics, such as giants, witches, and wrong-doings, and also real-life events such as the launching of the Titanic (Manadh air an Titanic, pp. 83-84).
The stories themselves are written in a storytelling register, and we find, for example, beginnings such as: ‘On a tha beagan againn cruinn a nochd, feumaidh sinn seann sgeulachd a ghabhail, airson comunn. Agus an te th’air an air’ agam fhìn co-dhiùbh, gus an tig duine eile mach le te is ionghantaiche: ’se gill’ òg agus nighean.’ (p. 39) and ‘Ann an cearn iomallach dhen Ghàidhealtachd aon uair’ (p. 63), and endings such as ‘Agus ma chòrd i ribh fhéin cho math ’s a chòrd i riumsa ’ga h-innse, gabhaidh sinn smoc’ (p. 44) and ‘Agus dhealaich mise rithe leis a sin’ (p. 38).
Terminology used in the stories includes spor-gunna (p. 1), ’Nuair a dh’fhàs e suas ’na chnapach (p. 1), feuch a faigheadh e (p. 1), gu feuma gu bheil (p. 1), mu thuairmse (p. 2), ’ill’ òig (p. 2), Fuirich tacan beag (p. 3), fuamhaire (p. 3), Bhathar a’ saoilsinn móran dhe (p. 4), ’s mur è bu mhutha na cheud dhà, chan è nì bu lugha (p. 5), poile (p. 5), cha do rinneadh greadhnachas ’sam bith ris (p. 6), gun còmhragainn (p. 7), éis (p. 8), fo gheasaibh (p. 19), gadaichean (p. 34), mar mhurtair (p. 35), Bha e suas ris a’ nighinn a bh’ ann a sheo agus bha fear eile ’n tòir air a’ nighinn cuideachd (p. 39), ’Se Màiri a b’ ainm dhise (p. 39), an-uair a thanaig orra aig muir (p. 39), cha robh e ’faighinn dol fodha ’sa’ chùis idir (p. 39), trìlleach (p. 39), droch sgeime (p. 40), bha e ’rùileach thall ’s a bhos (p. 40), air a chuile cùil is cial (p. 41), Tha clìcean air a dheanamh (p. 41), ann an tiotan (p. 42), cha teid mi ’n còir an taighe (p. 42), Theid a’ bhreug ’na h-ionad fhéin (p. 42), cois na fairge (p. 43), crodh-mara (p. 57), ’m pige ’s an t-slige chreachain (p. 63), ’s car den anmoch ann (p. 63), creithil (p. 63), as leithoir a chéile (p. 63), sìdhichean (p. 63), Chiall (p. 77), Manadh (p. 81), a’ latha leainseadh an Titanic (p. 83), cho tiugh ’s a thoilleadh iad (p. 83), crùgan (p. 85), a’ cur crann (p. 85), giornaileir (p. 85), and Guma fearr leat (p. 32).
The poems cover a wide range of subjects, including praise of North Uist, e.g. Uibhist a Tuath (pp. 102-03); the Gaelic language, e.g. Baigh ris a’ Ghaidhlig (pp. 109-10); and war, e.g. Oran a’ Chogaidh (pp. 92-93), where we find ‘Bidh peileirean snaidhte mun cuairt oirnn am pailteas \ A’ fuaim a’ dol seachad neo-thlachdmhor an srann \ Bidh gillean bha tapaidh a’ tuiteam gun fhacal \ ’S iad crioslaicht’ an acfhuinn gu batal nan lann. \ Chan ionnan ’s ’nuair b’òg mi a’ siubhal le m’gheòlaidh \ ’S mo chompanach còir le’m bu deòin a bhith leam \ Gunna geal bòidheach ’s mo chù air an t-sòile \ ’Nuair dhèanainn-sa leònadh bhiodh Dòmhnall ’na dheann’ (p. 92).
Expressions used in the poems and their introductions include, Cé ’n t-àite a b’fhearr dhut (p. 102), Cha bhi éis ort gu bràch ann ’s chan fhàilnich do stòr (p. 102), Suiridhe fad o laimh is pòsadh am bun na h-ursainn (p. 91), mi-chneasda (p. 91), ùslaig (p. 91), mo dhùitseach meaning pìob thombaca (p. 91), rògach (p. 91), sligeannan muirt-te (p. 92), gibhtean (p. 98), and tàileantan (p. 104).
This volume represents a good example of Grimsay Gaelic from the early-to-mid-twentieth century. As the editor has, to a large extent, reproduced the language of the storyteller and poet, the stories and poems contain fine examples of the spoken Grimsay dialect and of Grimsay constructions. The editor himself is intimately acquainted with Grimsay Gaelic and he states, in Facal on fhear Dheasachaidh, that the orthography applied to the stories and poems has been applied to that section also.
The North Uist usage may be represented in the following forms from Facal on fhear Dheasachaidh: faodaidh mi ràdha' (p. x), as a dheaghaidh seo (p. x), garrachan-iaruinn (p. xi), Gu dearbha (p. xii), cruiteireachd (p. xii), ’cluinnteil (p. xiii), a chuile facal (p. xiii), ullamh (p. xiv), mi fhéin (p. xiv), gun fhiosda dha fhéin (p. xv), gu sin a dheanamh (p. xvi), cho fada agus a b’urrainn sinn (p. xvi), o aona sgeulachd (p. xvi), air an tarruinn (p. xvi), air sàilleabh (p. xvii), as instead of anns (p. xvii), gu h-àraid (p. xviii), urad (p. xxi), and faghaidneach (p. xxi). Also of interest is the editor’s use of stòireannan and sgeulachdan (p. xv) where stòireannan is used to mean stories of all different types, both fact and fiction, whereas sgeulachdan is used to refer to fictional stories only. Of particular note is the use of the prepositional pronouns in direct speech, dhu’sa (p. 1), riu’sa (p. 4) and àsan (p. 7), and of linn (p. xviii), ribh (p. 3), and libh (p. 41). Also of interest is the use of as rather than ars (p. 3) and of fèidhe instead of foidhpe (p. 78).
Other expressions of interest, which may reflect the Grimsay dialect, include ’ga chluic (p. 1), aona mhac (p. 1), a thoradh (p. 1), bu mhutha (p. 2) and na bu mhù (p. 8), cha d’readh iad (p. 2), gu bràch (p. 3), am beothach (p. 4), locha (p. 6), gnàda (p. 6), throimhte-chéile (p. 7), Cà’il (p. 18), ’toir leis bràthair Màiri (p. 39), Thugnaibh suas (p. 41), cha tana’ tusa seo (p. 41), sìon (p. 42), Tha fiosam (p. 42), a staigh ’s a mach (p. 43), gun an taighe (p. 44), gu toir fairis (p. 44), fritheilteach (p. 63), tha cuimhneam fhìn (p. 63), gura docha gur ann (p. 77), Bha sinne ’bruidhinn ùineachan is ùineachan (p. 84), sciallt meaning ciall (p. 84), dei’near (p. 85), gugallach (p. 85), and ’g ionndrainn na bheil bhuam (p. 111).
In addition, the author uses a number of -(a)idh dative endings and of -(e)adh genitive endings, for example dhan uamhaidh (p. 4), as a’ choillidh (p. 4), dhan chistidh (p. 42), and na coilleadh (p. 4), na sréineadh (p. 5), ’n cois na maradh (p. 61), fad na h-oidhcheadh (p. 32), coltas na brùideadh (p. 7), and taobh na h-aibhneadh (p. 83). We also find a number of passives and imperatives such as mar a chainte riutha (p. 1), Agus rinneadh seo (p. 5), Cluinneam do cheòl agus faiceam do bhiadh (p. 5), a gheibhte brath (p. 77), chainte (p. 77), and airson gum cùm-te (p. 42).
The editor explains, in Facal on fhear Dheasachaidh (pp. ix-xxi), that he has tried, where possible, to reproduce Pàdruig’s language in the orthography he has used. He draws our attention, however, to a number of instances where he has deviated from this course:
1. While Pàdruig most often said sen instead of sin, he occasionally said sin and this is what the editor has chosen to use in the text, both for consistency and in order that it be easily recognisable to all Gaelic speakers.
2. Where Pàdruig says a neist and colach, the editor has used a nis and coltach.
3. On tape, Pàdruig uses both smaoin(d)eachadh and smaoineach(d)ainn. The editor has chosen to use smaoineachadh.
4. Where Pàdruig says chos (supposedly standing for a chum agus), the editor has chosen to write gus and to note the change in a footnote.
5. Where Grimsay Gaelic commonly uses go, gon, and gos, the editor has chosen to use gu, gun, and gus.
6. Where Grimsay Gaelic commonly uses ma and mas (e.g. ma faca and mas do ranaig), the editor has chosen to use mu and mus.
7. Where Grimsay Gaelic commonly uses bial and sgial, the editor uses beul and sgeul.
8. Where Grimsay Gaelic commonly uses na (e.g. dubh na geal), the editor uses no.
9. Where Grimsay Gaelic commonly uses mar (e.g. mar a dèan), the editor uses mur.
The editor also explains that he has respected the author’s use of as deaghaidh and an déidh. In addition, he has tended not to use apostrophes, preferring, where possible, forms such as dhan, dhen, and gun. He has also left out some accents, where there was no stress on the syllable. The reader will notice, therefore both accented and un-accented forms of certain words, such as thàinig and thainig, bhà and bha, and té and te.
Both grave and acute accents are used throughout the text. Note the use of the internal d in na Staidean Aonaichte (p. xi) and cinndeach (p. 113), and the frequent use of g where standard Gaelic spelling has c, e.g. chunnaig (p. xxi), air an tiodhlagadh (p. 5). The editor has also used the final vowel u rather than a, e.g. maduinn (p. 59).
|Edition||First edition. The versions of the stories and poems previously published in Tocher differ from those published in this volume in that the editor (who is also the editor of this volume) has retained more of the dialectal features of Pàdruig‘s language in the texts published in Tocher. For example, whereas in this volume the editor uses gu and gus, mun, a shin, and gun, in Tocher, the editor uses go and gos, mas, a shen, and go’n. In Tocher the editor also uses reimhe instead of roimhe, à-san instead of àsan, dh’éibh instead of dh’eubh, ’sa’ bith instead of ’sam bith, ge ba ’rith instead of ge brith, mar a feir sinn instead of mar a their sinn, neist instead of nis, readh instead of r’eadh, and go’r instead of gu’r. The editor also has Ghiall in Tocher where he has Chiall in this volume, however, this may simply have been the result of a typing error in Tocher. It may be preferable to use Tocher 16 when exerpting from the three stories and two songs that were published there.|
|Further Reading||Aarne, Antti, and Thompson, Stith, The Types of the Folktale: a Classification and Bibliography, 1961.
MacDonald, Donald A., ‘Peter Morrison’, Tocher 16, 1974, pp. 303-22.